In 1997, eight E85 (85% ethanol; 15% gasoline) fuel pumps were installed at separate retail fuel stations in Minnesota to provide high-blend ethanol fuel to flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) owners. FFVs capable of utilizing gasoline, E85, or any mixture of the two, were beginning to be mass produced by vehicle manufacturers and distributed through fleet and retail sales nationwide. These state-level E85 efforts were part of larger federal and state policies and programs promoting the use of alternative transportation fuels to displace traditional gasoline and diesel fuel, which continue today. By the end of 2006, there were approximately 300 E85 fuel station
locations and over 125,000 FFVs in Minnesota. The amount of E85 fuel being utilized in the state was estimated at approximately 18 million gallons annually

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Paul Bergeron
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